Bradford Peace Trail
26 Norman Angell
  Norman Angell is Bradford's Nobel Peace Prize winner. He was Labour MP for Bradford North from 1929 - 31, during which time he was a Foreign Office advisor. He came to realise during his Bradford years that he was a writer more than a politician, so did not continue a career in politics
after leaving Bradford in 1931. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1933 for his work as an author. In particular he wrote The Great Illusion, first published in 1909, which argued that war did not make good economic sense. His work was reprinted many times, and a new edition issued in 1933.
Half a century later, in 1982, the Archbishop of Canterbury Robert Runcie, in his sermon at the Westminster Abbey Falklands War memorial service, praised Angell and said:
"At the beginning of the 20th century in a noble book, which deserves re-reading, 'The Great Illusion' by Norman Angell, the irrational character of war in a modern world was precisely described... we flourish and become prosperous, not by raiding and pauperising our neighbours, but by building them up."
His great-niece, Alice Everard-Angell, visited Bradford in 2001 to help launch The Peace Museum's (see site 16) newly created international travelling exhibition on the Nobel Peace Prize, in which her great-uncle featured.
Norman Angell did not have a permanent residence in Bradford whilst an MP but when he was in the city he lodged with the then
  Deputy Mayor who lived at 43 Leamington Street in Manningham, down Oak Lane from Manningham Mills (see site 27).
A commemorative plaque has been put up in Bradford, at the Peace Museum (see site 16).
27 Manningham Mills
Manningham Mills is an enormous former mill, now turned into flats. It is also called Lister's Mill because it was built by the manufacturing magnate Samuel Cunliffe Lister. It has a chimney, modelled on the bell tower of San Marco, Venice, which can be seen from across Bradford.
A plaque on the mill wall at the corner with Heaton Road and Oak Lane, opposite the Police Station, records the strike in 1890
which is acknowledged to have given the impetus to the formation of the Independent Labour Party in 1893 (see site 14). Workers were fighting cuts in wages imposed by the employers. They suffered attacks by the Police and were eventually starved back  
to work, but they had learnt the need for organisation to protect their needs.
  The plaque reads:
Manningham Mills Strike Centenary 1890-1990. At this place in December 1890 began the Manningham Mills strike which lasted until April 1891. This led to the founding of the Bradford Labour Union which in turn saw the formation of the national Independent Labour Party in Bradford three years later. (see site 14).
28 Oak Lane
Oak Lane: Bradford has suffered two recent community disturbances, in 1995 and 2001. In both, battles with the police were fought out on Oak Lane. In 1995, the disturbances were triggered by policing of a neighbour complaint. On that day a multiracial, multifaith group of women, who had been meeting regularly, came together in the house of a member who lived in the vicinity to share concern about the violence.
They quickly decided to draw the word 'peace' in English and Urdu on a white sheet banner and, carrying candles, take it out onto the street. Ignoring jibes of 'get back to the kitchen' the women walked slowly up Oak Lane towards Manningham Mills with the banner. The crowd of young men began to disperse (11 June 1995).
28 Oak Lane (cont)
The 2001 disturbance was triggered by rumours that fascist groups were to parade in Bradford. Again, young men ended up fighting the police causing destruction in the neighbourhoods of White Abbey and Oak Lane. Since then, statutory organisations, voluntary groups and individuals in Bradford have worked hard to build positive community relationships, to heal rifts and to face difficult challenges in day-to-day life.
29 Miriam Lord
  Miriam Lord trained at the Rachel McMillan Nursery School in Deptford (see site 24). She became Head of Bradford's first Open Air Nursery School in 1921 at Lilycroft School, on Lilycroft Road, Manningham. The Nursery School Movement was new and visitors from all over the world came to
Bradford to see the nursery in practice. The Open Air Nursery School was in a purpose-built, single storey building behind the main school. Lilycroft Nursery School is using it now. There was a verandah running the length of the building and open to a lovely garden. Built in the midst of the mill workers' community, it aimed to meet some of the social, medical and educational needs of the families.
Born in Bradford, and with a father who was a founded member of the Independent Labour Party (see site 14), Miriam Lord OBE also founded the Margaret McMillan Trust that funded the teacher training college, now part of Bradford College (see site 24). A commemorative plaque now up on the west gatepost of Lilycroft Primary School.
In 1956, Miriam Lord wrote about a soldier visiting the school in 1941: 'He felt he must see at once the place where he had spent 'the happiest years' of his life. Out there, 'in the heat and filth and noise, among sand, flies, blood and death', he told how his mind forever wandered back to the cool, green oasis of childhood's memory'.
He had described the Open Air Nursery to his fellow soldiers, as a children's paradise, the rabbits, the sand, the dovecote. As he left he said:  
'If all children in every land could have such a start, the world would not be in the chaos it is today. Happy people don't make wars'.
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